Gastritis Nursing Care Plans and NCLEX Review
5 Nursing Care Plans on Gastritis
Gastritis is a universal term for a group of conditions that all have one similar manifestation: the inflammation of the stomach lining. The bacteria that typically causes gastritis is the same pathogen that causes most gastrointestinal problems, especially stomach ulcers.
Regular intake of certain pain relievers and excessive alcohol consumption can significantly contribute to gastritis.
Moreover, gastritis can appear suddenly or gradually over time, which is diagnosed as acute or chronic gastritis. In some circumstances, gastritis can result in ulcers and an elevated chance of stomach cancer. On the other hand, gastritis is usually not severe and improves rapidly if managed well.
Signs and Symptoms of Gastritis
Clinical manifestations differ in each individual and, in some instances, are so subtle that they are not noticed or considered as bothersome.
The following are the typical signs and symptoms of Gastritis:
- Intestinal cramping, dizziness, and vomiting (which may include the passage of blood or coffee ground looking stool
- Dyspepsia (A burning or stinging sensation accompanied by discomfort or pain that intensifies between meal time or bedtime.)
- Fullness or bloating in the upper abdomen mainly occurs after a meal.
- Loss of appetite
Causes and Risk Factors of Gastritis
Numerous factors can trigger gastritis. Some of the dietary and lifestyle factors include the following:
- Excessive alcohol consumption
- Ingesting surmountable amount of spicy foods
- Incredibly stressful situation. Those unfortunate circumstances could be due to severe or life-threatening health issues.
- Prolonged use of aspirin and other over-the-counter pain relievers and fever reducers can also aggravate Gastritis.
Gastritis can be a result of various health problems, too, including:
- Bacterial and viral infections
- Major surgery
- Burns or traumatic injury
Other disorders can also cause gastritis. These include:
- Autoimmune diseases – This occurs when the immune system mistakenly destroys the body’s healthy cells.
- Chronic bile reflux – This occurs when bile accumulates in the stomach and esophagus or food pipe.
- Pernicious anemia- This type of anemia occurs when the intestines cannot metabolize vitamin B-12.
Certain illnesses and behaviors may put someone at greater risk of getting gastritis. Other risk factors are as follows:
- Excessive alcohol consumption
- Excessive intake of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
- Cocaine consumption
- Age, since the stomach lining gradually thins through aging.
Other risk factors that are less significant include:
Diagnosis of Gastritis
The medical practitioner will conduct a physical exam, question the patient about the symptoms, and inquire about family history. They may also suggest an H. pylori test via breath, blood, or stool.
Furthermore, the doctor may also conduct the following diagnostic test:
- Upper GI Endoscopy – utilized to rule out abnormalities in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. The doctor may conduct a biopsy by obtaining a minuscule sample in the stomach lining underneath a microscope; a pathologist will look for something uncommon in the specimen collected.
- Upper GI series – after swallowing a barium solution, X-rays of the digestive tract are taken. This procedure will aid in identifying significant concerns.
- Blood test – beneficial to rule out other possible reasons for gastritis complications.
- Fecalysis – used to rule out an H. pylori infection or blood in the feces. The presence of blood may signal that there is bleeding in the stomach.
- Urea breath test- checks for an H. pylori infection by having the patient swallow a urea capsule and then observing if they expel carbon dioxide atoms. The presence of carbon dioxide would suggest that the patient has Gastritis.
Treatment for Gastritis
The treatment for gastritis depends on the underlying cause.
- Lifestyle changes and medication review. If the cause of gastritis is excessive intake of alcohol or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Discontinuing the usage of these substances may relieve acute gastritis.
- Medications. The following medications are used in the treatment of gastritis:
- Antibacterial medications – antibiotics are most commonly prescribed to kill H. Pylori. Moreover, remember to finish the entire course of treatment, which usually lasts for 7 to 14 days.
- Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)– this class of drugs suppresses acid by blocking the effects of the cells’ acid-producing enzymes.
- H2 blockers – a line of medications that lowers the amount of acid discharged into the digestive tract, relieving gastritis discomfort and promoting recovery.
- Antacids – counteract the existing stomach acid and provide immediate pain management. Depending on the primary constituents of the antacids, side effects may include constipation or diarrhea.
5 Nursing Care Plans for Gastritis
Nursing Care Plan for Gastritis 1
Acute Pain (Abdominal)
Nursing Diagnosis: Acute Pain (Abdominal) related to muscle spasms secondary to gastritis as evidenced by reports of discomfort and modifications in muscle tone.
Desired Outcome: The patient will learn to express pain alleviation verbally and will be able to participate in activities with fewer reports of discomfort.
|Promote effective coping strategies and emotional support such as guided imagery, visualization, deep-breathing exercises, or progressive relaxation.||This technique refocuses concentration, develops a sense of control, and may improve coping mechanisms in dealing with the stress of traumatic damage and pain, which is likely to last for a long time.|
|Immobilize the injured part with bed rest, a cast, a splint, or traction.||Immobilization lessens pain and inhibits bone dislocation and tissue necrosis from spreading.|
|Before actually beginning any procedures, allow the patients to know about it.||This method enables the patient to prepare better for activities and manage discomfort mentally.|
|Consider giving medication for gastritis such as antacids before beginning patient care such as helping the patient mobilize. Inform the patient that it is critical to take medicine before the discomfort gets unbearable.||This technique relaxes the muscles and increases engagement.|
|Examine any indications of atypical or intense pain, as well as severe, escalating, and disorientated pain that is not alleviated by painkillers.||This approach may indicate the emergence of tissue ischemia, infection, and compartmental disease problems.|
Nursing Care Plan for Gastritis 2
Nursing Diagnosis: Alteration in Comfort related to physical or emotional distress secondary to gastritis as evidenced by pain, fatigue, and mental exhaustion.
Desired Outcome: The patient will verbalize a pain level of less than three on a pain scale and show how to employ coping methods in stressful situations.
|Come up with a variety of mindfulness techniques that may help to alleviate the discomfort of the patients, such as the ones enumerated below: |
-Imagery/visualization with guidance
-Exercising breathing techniques
|These approaches assist in diverting attention away from the current pain, worry, and pressure and toward more enjoyable sensations.|
|Listening and understanding the patient are two of the best communication techniques to consider in managing discomfort.||In a new situation, the sense of being heard and understood expresses acceptability and encourages comfort.|
|Maintain a cheerful disposition when socializing with the patient.||Awkwardness or hasty attitudes might be projected onto the patient, in which the patient may feel stressed and worried. Thus, a carefree attitude is vital in enabling the patient to remain calm.|
|Before beginning any treatment procedure to the patient, explain routine patient care.||Informing the patient on what to expect may alleviate worry and enhance comfort.|
|Provide pain medicine to the patient as directed, or provide an alternative pain management option such as heat or cold application.||Pain might add to the patient’s already-existing misery, exacerbating the situation. As a result, if the pain becomes unbearable, the use of medications must be considered. Furthermore, warm blankets and ice packs can be supplementary tools to relieve pain and increase comfort.|
Nursing Care Plan for Gastritis 3
Nursing Diagnosis: Nausea/ Vomiting related to overactive gag reflex secondary to gastritis as evidenced by acid reflux.
Desired Outcome: There will be a lower nausea and vomiting severity incidence.
|Ensure that an emesis basin is easily accessible to the patient.||Vomiting and nausea are directly connected. Therefore, if the nausea is psychogenic, place the emesis container out of sight but still within the patient’s access.|
|Help the patient in medical diagnostics preparation.||A variety of procedures, such as an Upper Gastrointestinal tract examination, an Abdominal Computed Tomography scan, and ultrasound, may be done to discover the cause of nausea and vomiting.|
|Permit the patient to use non pharmacological nausea management approaches such as deep breathing, relaxation, music therapy, and guided imagery.||These approaches have assisted people in resolving the problem, but they must be used before it develops.|
|Instruct the patient or nurse on hydration and food options for nausea and vomiting.||Patients and nurses can support proper hydration and nutritional status by recognizing food factors while feeling nauseous.|
|Apply acupressure or acustimulation bands as directed.||In certain circumstances, stimulation of the Neiguan P6 acupuncture point on the ventral side of the wrist has been shown to diminish nausea. This approach has been proven beneficial for those suffering from motion sickness.|
Nursing Care Plan for Gastritis 4
Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective Coping related to the uncertainty of the illness progression secondary to gastritis as evidenced by the inability to adapt, frustration, and anxiety
Desired Outcome: The patient will learn to appropriately appraise his or her current condition and recognize poor coping techniques and outcomes.
|Determine external pressures such as the social or working environment, family, and relationships.||Stress can change the autonomic nervous system, influencing the immune function and resulting in illness aggravation. Thus, even the desire for independence in the reliant patient might be a source of further stress.|
|Assist the patient in identifying appropriate coping methods for themselves.||Using highly successful behavior management can assist the patient in dealing with the current situation and planning for the future.|
|Offer emotional assistance. Here are some examples of how to employ it: |
-Listen actively with no judgment
-When dealing with a patient, use non-confrontational body language.
-As much as necessary, retain the same personnel. .
|This method facilitates communication, comprehends the patient’s point of view, and contributes to the patient’s sense of self-worth. This strategy also avoids perpetuating the patient’s sense of being a nuisance. Finally, it creates a more nurturing environment while reducing the stress of continual modifications|
|Allow the patient decent sleep and rest times.||Exhaustion caused by the disease tends to exaggerate problems, interfering with one’s ability to deal. As a result, this strategy is advantageous in acquiring an appropriate coping mechanism.|
|If mental exhaustion becomes overwhelming, anti-anxiety medicines should be administered. However, before taking it, the patient should seek medical assistance.||This method promotes both psychological and physical relaxation. It saves energy and may improve coping skills.|
Nursing Care Plan for Gastritis 5
Nursing Diagnosis: Deficient Knowledge related to misunderstanding of information, inability to recall, and unawareness of resources available secondary to a new diagnosis of gastritis as evidenced by improper follow-through directions and the emergence of avoidable clinical manifestations of a particular disease.
Desired outcome: The patient will be able to demonstrate awareness of illness processes, potential problems, and therapy regimen.
|Examine the disease process, the cause-and-effect relationship of the elements that create symptoms, and approaches to eliminate possible causes. Lastly, encourage patients to ask questions.||Provoking or risk factors may vary for each individual. Consequently, the patient must know which foods, drinks, and behavioral variables can trigger symptoms. An accurate knowledge foundation allows patients to make knowledgeable decisions about their chronic disease’s future and control. Whereas most patients know their disease state, however, they may still be misinformed or have obsolete information.|
|Evaluate the patient’s understanding of the disease cycle.||This intervention creates a piece of knowledge and understanding and provides some awareness into individual learning requirements.|
|If the patient is unaware of the adverse reactions of their medicine, remind them to keep an eye out for them. For example, if the patient is taking steroids long-term, inform them that they can induce ulcers, facial swelling, and muscle cramps.||Educating the patient regarding any medications they are taking will prevent undesirable effects.|
|Educate the client about proper meal frequencies and food categories to avoid in the event of a flare-up.||The patient may be unaware that spicy foods might cause Gastritis. Avoiding spicy foods, excessively seasoned foods, acidic foods, smoking, alcohol, and NSAIDs are effective ways of preventing aggravation of the condition. Furthermore, small, regular meals rather than bland meals are recommended.|
|Educate the patient not to practice self-medication.||Explain to the patient the importance of seeking a healthcare professional’s advice before taking any medication. This approach will help prevent taking inappropriate medications for a particular health condition. Furthermore, wrong medication could lead to a more significant problem.|
Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Makic, M. B., Martinez-Kratz, M. R., & Zanotti, M. (2020). Nursing diagnoses handbook: An evidence-based guide to planning care. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Buy on Amazon
Gulanick, M., & Myers, J. L. (2017). Nursing care plans: Diagnoses, interventions, & outcomes. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Buy on Amazon
Ignatavicius, D. D., Workman, M. L., Rebar, C. R., & Heimgartner, N. M. (2018). Medical-surgical nursing: Concepts for interprofessional collaborative care. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Buy on Amazon
Silvestri, L. A. (2020). Saunders comprehensive review for the NCLEX-RN examination. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Buy on Amazon
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